Here you can find a nice table of mathematical symbols.

1. Basic Operations
Symbol Name Description
- Minus Subtraction
* Multiplication Multiplication
/ Division Division
= Equals Equal to
Not equals Not equal to
< Less than Less than
> Greater than Greater than
Less than or equal Less than or equal to
Greater or equal Greater than or equal to
Square root Square root of a number
^ Exponent Indicates exponentiation (e.g., 2^3 means 2 cubed)

1. Greek Alphabet
Greek Letter Uppercase Lowercase Meaning/Usage
Alpha Α α Often used to represent the first or initial value in a sequence or set. It is also used in various contexts, such as angles and constants.
Beta Β β Often used to represent the second value or coefficient in a sequence, set, or equation. It is commonly used in statistics and regression analysis.
Gamma Γ γ Frequently used in mathematics and physics. It has various applications, such as representing a parameter, a constant, or a gamma function.
Delta Δ δ Often used to denote a change or difference. It is also used to represent a small increment in a variable or a variation in a quantity.
Epsilon Ε ε Commonly used to represent a small positive number, typically associated with limits and convergence in calculus.
Zeta Ζ ζ Primarily used to represent a variable in equations or to denote a complex number.
Eta Η η Frequently used to represent the efficiency or an unknown variable in equations and mathematical models.
Theta Θ θ Often used to represent angles in geometry and trigonometry. It is also used to represent unknown variables or parameters in equations and models.
Iota Ι ι Primarily used as a variable or an index in mathematics, especially in sequences, series, and summations.
Kappa Κ κ Commonly used as a variable in mathematics, physics, and engineering. It has various applications, such as representing a constant or a wave number.
Lambda Λ λ Frequently used in mathematics and physics. It represents eigenvalues, wavelengths, decay constants, and parameters in various contexts.
Mu Μ μ Often used to represent the mean or average in statistics. It is also used as a variable or coefficient in various mathematical equations.
Nu Ν ν Primarily used as a variable or a parameter in mathematics, physics, and engineering.
Xi Ξ ξ Commonly used in mathematics and statistics. It represents a variable, a set, or a distribution in various contexts.
Omicron Ο ο Occasionally used as a variable, but it does not have specific mathematical meaning or usage in most cases.
Pi Π π Frequently used to represent the mathematical constant pi, which is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter (approximately 3.14159).
Rho Ρ ρ Primarily used to represent a density, a correlation coefficient, or a resistivity in physics and engineering.
Sigma Σ σ Uppercase sigma (Σ) is used to denote summation, while lowercase sigma (σ) is used to represent the standard deviation in statistics.
Tau Τ τ Often used to represent time constants, torque, or a parameter in physics and engineering.
Upsilon Υ υ Frequently used to represent a variable or a parameter in mathematics, physics, and engineering.
Phi Φ φ Often used to represent the golden ratio or a variable in equations and models. It is also used in trigonometry and complex numbers.
Chi Χ χ Commonly used as a variable or a parameter in mathematics, physics, and engineering.
Psi Ψ ψ Frequently used in mathematics, physics, and engineering. It represents wave functions, angles, or a variable in various contexts.
Omega Ω ω Often used to represent the last or final value in a sequence or set. It is also used to denote angular velocity or a limit in calculus.

1. Set Theory
Symbol Name Description
Element of Used to specify that an element is in a set
Not an element of Used to specify that an element is not in a set
Subset of A set whose elements are all members of another set
Proper subset of A subset that is not equal to the original set
Superset of A set containing all elements of another set
Proper superset of A superset that is not equal to the original set
Empty set A set with no elements
{ } Set brackets Used to denote a set
Intersection Common elements between two sets
Union All elements that are in either of two sets
Set difference Elements that are in one set but not another
P(A) Power set The set of all subsets of a set

1. Calculus
Symbol Name Description
Integral Represents the integral of a function over an interval
Partial derivative Represents the partial derivative of a function
Del or Nabla A vector operator used in vector calculus
Infinity A number greater than any assignable quantity or count
dx Differential Represents a small change in the variable x
d/dx Derivative The derivative of a function with respect to x
Summation The sum of a series of terms
∆x Delta x Represents a small change or difference in the variable x
lim Limit The value a function approaches as the input approaches a value

1. Geometry
Symbol Name Description
Angle Used to represent an angle
Congruent Identical in form
Parallel Two lines in a plane that do not meet
Perpendicular Intersection at a right angle
π Pi The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter
° Degree A unit of measurement of angles
Minute 1/60 of a degree
’’ Second 1/60 of a minute
r Radius The distance from the center to the edge of a circle
d Diameter The distance across a circle through its center
a,b,c Sides of a triangle Often used to represent the sides of a triangle
h Height The “height” of a figure

1. Algebra
Symbol Name Description
x, y, z Variables Often used to represent unknown quantities
a, b, c Constants Often used to represent known quantities
f(x) Function of x A function in terms of x
Equivalent to Identical or equal to
Approximately equal Roughly equal to
Proportional to Changes with the change of another quantity
Square A number multiplied by itself
Cube A number multiplied by itself twice
√x Square root A number which when squared gives x
x! Factorial The product of an integer and all the integers below it
x^n Power X raised to the power of n

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